As she reveals how she bravely faced life alone as a single mother of a cherished son, Andkaer recalls a dark time; she attempted suicide and wondered if anyone would ever understand her pain. It was only when she vowed to heal herself from within that she began to see visions that took her on an empowering journey to the truth. My Manifest and the Grail shares one woman's incredible life story as she unites her spirit with the "Touch" to offer an important message of healing.
Now that she has raised her family, she enjoys gardening with her husband and spending time with her children and grandchildren. She currently lives in Canada. Bidang tersembunyi. Koleksiku Bantuan Penelusuran Buku Lanjutan. Here spirituality seems to be primarily considered in an existential sense. That relationship with God is expressed through my body, my thinking, my feelings, my judgments, and my creativity.
My spirituality motivates me to choose meaningful relationships and pursuits. Through my spirituality I give and receive love; I respond to and appreciate God, other people, a sunset, a symphony, and spring. I am driven forward, sometimes because of pain, sometimes in spite of pain. Spirituality allows me to reflect on myself. In accordance with these definitions, all humans are spiritual beings and need not be religious to be spiritual.
Despite a large number of reviews on spirituality , for example, in the context of palliative care [ 12 ], nursing management [ 13 , 14 ], recovery from surgery [ 15 ] and spiritual needs [ 16 ], there is a lack of clarity in research concerning differences in the views of spirituality and spiritual values in the context of nursing, which is therefore the subject of this study.
The integrative review method consists of data reduction, data display, data comparison, interpretation and conclusion drawing [ 17 , 18 ]. Integrative reviews can also combine both quantitative and qualitative data from the theoretical as well as empirical literature.
My Manifest and the Grail
This broad sampling frame has the potential to result in a comprehensive depiction of complex concepts, such as spirituality and spiritual values [ 17 ]. In accordance with Barbosa da Silva [2 p. According to Dilthey , human sciences Ger. Geisteswissenschaften study the human being as cultural, spiritual and social [ 2 ]. Existentialist philosophers such as Kierkegaard [ 19 ], Buber [ 20 ] and Frankl [ 1 ] consider the experience of life, suffering, guilt, fear, freedom, responsibility, moral conscience and despair as spiritual.
Buber [ 20 ] argued that the spirit is not in the self, but expresses itself in an authentic communication between two or more human subjects, me and you. The fact that a human experience is spiritual in an existential sense implies that it is characteristic of the human existence per se. Thus, Barbosa da Silva [ 2 ] concluded that what is existential spiritual is also universal in the sense that it is considered to belong to all people at all times and in all places. Thus we will distinguish between cultural, existential and religious spirituality.
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Studies considered for inclusion were qualitative research papers, primary sources dealing with spirituality in the nursing context and empirical or theoretical literature published in the English language. The exclusion criteria were quantitative articles, review articles and papers concerning the education of nursing students.
In addition, the Journals of Nursing Philosophy 4 hits and Nursing Ethics 5 hits from to were searched more systematically while secondary searches were also conducted on the homepages of various other randomly selected Nursing Journals. Finally, a search was performed in February and March in the Scopus database using the same keywords and procedure.
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Additionally, during the analysis process, an ongoing search was performed in the Scopus database to obtain updates, from which one additional article emerged. There were no restrictions in terms of year of publication in any of the search processes. According to Whittemore and Knafl [ 17 ], there is no gold standard for evaluating and interpreting quality in research reviews.
Therefore, data relevance refers to the extent to which the studies met the aim of this integrative review and for this reason; no studies were excluded due to poor methodological quality. A total of 97 studies were identified. Abstracts or full articles were examined in several steps by two of the authors. This procedure ended with the selection of 26 articles published between and that met the inclusion criteria. The findings of each study were scrutinized to identify experiences of spirituality and spiritual values in the context of nursing.
My Manifest and the Grail
In this process a further 11 articles were excluded when it became clear that spirituality was not in focus. As a result, the research material comprised 15 articles, including a total of patients, aged years, 52 staff members and former caregivers, aged years, and 9 family members. Of these participants, were female and male. All studies used some kind of descriptive design. Three had a phenomenological, one a phenomenographical, one a hermeneutic phenomenological and one a phenomenological hermeneutic approach in addition to which one employed qualitative content analysis, two grounded theory analysis and two articles were theoretical.
Data reduction involved categorizing the data from each article in a matrix based on the study type. In data display, extracts from each article were placed in the matrix to illustrate patterns and facilitate comparison.
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Data comparison involved making comparisons across the studies and examining the data to identify differences and similarities between themes. During the interpretation process the patterns and relationships identified were described and raised to a higher level of abstraction.
Conclusions were drawn that captured the breadth, depth and relevance of the data [ 17 ]. Spirituality was described as the integration of body, mind and spirit in to a harmonious whole [ 21 ]. The comprehensive perspective emerged as being part of a greater picture [ 21 ] and an understanding of something greater than oneself, or awe when, for example, walking in nature [ 22 ]. It was also expressed as a search for the sacred through subjective feelings, thoughts and behaviours [ 22 ]. According to Yuen [ 22 ] and Tanyi et al.
Spirituality strengthens the ability to articulate uncertainty and in turn enables clarity that promotes an understanding of illness and change [ 22 ]. In this theme spirituality is seen as an essentially transcendent concept. In this theme, spirituality emerged as the need to be in the moment and involves the experience of interpersonal intimacy [ 25 ]. Tanyi et al. This includes embracing, crying together, gift giving, having coffee together and visiting each other [ 25 ].
Laughter , happy thoughts and the smiles of others were considered comforting.
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Being with others was described as a primary spiritual need and conversation was unnecessary. However, when talking with others a conversation about ordinary things was preferred [ 26 ]. Spirituality brought about the realization that the relationship with family and friends was important at the end of life [ 27 ] and involved finding a healthy balance in relationships between friends, family, society and God [ 28 ].
Furthermore, relationships also included disclosing and understanding fears and helplessness [ 27 ]. Of primary importance was the presence of others, community, nature and God [ 24 ]. Presence was the most influential element in enhancing the life-giving force of spirituality and positively influencing recovery [ 24 ]. The presence of family and friends was a calming experience that brought forth comfort and peace [ 24 ]. Presence was not only physical but a deep felt fellowship on a metaphysical or transcendent spiritual level, which brought forth a sense of peace, happiness, joy and hope [ 24 ].
In this type of presence, there is an intimate connection, a sense of awe, love and acceptance.
Such presence can arise in any situation or context with a person, pet or in nature where there is a strong transcendental connection [ 28 ]. Finding balance involved introspection, reframing, adjusting , facing the challenge, prayer as well as choosing to avoid negative thoughts related to the body, mind and spirit [ 28 ]. This exemplifies spirituality in the religious and existential or universal sense. It does not only involve a relationship with others but also with oneself , something within a person, without which life would not be worth living [ 27 ].
Finding meaning in life involved contextualizing health conditions by reflecting on the purpose of life or by outlining life goals and personal philosophies [ 21 ].
Finding the meaning of life was a dynamic, individual process that changed moment-to-moment and day-to-day events.
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